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Migraine Genetics


Guest Editor: Jonathan H. Smith, M.D.
Dr. Jonathan H. Smith is an Assistant Professor of Neurology at the University of Kentucky. He is board certified in Neurology by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). He is currently an Assistant Editor for Headache.


Introduction
The heritability of migraine is strongly supported by the observation of a 3-fold increased risk in relatives of migraineurs, as well as twin studies consistently demonstrating higher concordance among monozygotic versus dizygotic pairs. Genetic influences are thought to be greatest among patients with aura. Apart from monogenic forms of the disorder (e.g. familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM)), no simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance has been identified. Recent data support the concept that migraine is a polygenic disorder, likely with specific subsets of genes dictating individual features of the phenotype (e.g. presence of aura, severity).

Genetic studies of both uncommon and common forms of migraine have dramatically increased our understanding of migraine pathophysiology. The study of FHM has implicated ion channels and glutamate homeostasis as important substrates of migraine pathophysiology. Among patients with common forms of migraine, numerous case-control studies have been performed demonstrating only modest associations for many candidate genes (e.g. dopamine and estrogen receptor subtypes). More recently, unbiased genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed on large cohorts of cases and controls have identified at least 12 loci associated with migraine susceptibility. These have been mostly associated with migraine without aura, and may confer either an increased (e.g. PRDM16) or decreased (e.g. LRP1) risk of migraine as compared to controls. Interestingly, different loci have been identified in population versus clinic-based samples, suggesting a possible association between genetic susceptibility and disease severity. Loci identified from GWAS have diverse functions in synaptic regulation (e.g. MEF2D), glutamate signaling (e.g. LRP1), neuropathic pain transmission (e.g. TRPM8), and some with yet to be understood pathophysiologic significance (e.g. TGFBR2). Further study of migraine genetics holds promise for greater depth of understanding of migraine neurobiology, and identification of novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

Manuscripts published in Headache and Headache Currents pertaining to the topic of migraine genetics are categorized and outlined below.

Review articles and commentaries

Migraine Genetics – A Review: Part I
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 53, Issue 8, September 2013, Pages: 1207–1217, Stephen Silberstein and David Dodick

Migraine Genetics: Part II
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 53, Issue 8, September 2013, Pages: 1218–1229, Stephen D. Silberstein and David W. Dodick

Human Studies in the Pathophysiology of Migraine: Genetics and Functional Neuroimaging
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 53, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages: 401–412, F. Michael Cutrer and Jonathan H. Smith

Update on the Genetics of Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 52, Issue 3, March 2012, Pages: 521–522, Kathleen Ries Merikangas

Migraine Genes and the Relation to Gender
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 51, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages: 880–890, Reinald Shyti, Boukje de Vries and Arn van den Maagdenberg

Migraine Genetics: A Fascinating Journey Towards Improved Migraine Therapy
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 48, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages: 697–700, Michel D. Ferrari

Genetic Biomarkers for Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 46, Issue 7, July/August 2006, Pages: 1059–1068, Boukje De Vries, Joost Haan, Rune R. Frants, Arn M.J.M. Van den Maagdenberg and Michel D. Ferrari

Genetics of Migraine: Possible Links to Neurophysiological Abnormalities
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 42, Issue 5, May 2002, Pages: 365–377, Peter S. Sándor, Anna Ambrosini, Reto M. Agosti and Jean Schoenen

Sympathetic Look at Genetic Basis of Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 42, Issue 5, May 2002, Pages: 378–381, Stephen J. Peroutka

Evolutionary perspective

The Primary Headaches as a Reflection of Genetic Darwinian Adaptive Behavioral Responses
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages: 273–289, Pasquale Montagna, Giulia Pierangeli and Pietro Cortelli

Phenotypic effects of genetics

Acute Striatal Necrosis in Hemiplegic Migraine With de Novo CACNA1A Mutation
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 51, Issue 10, November/December 2011, Pages: 1542–1546, Oriel Carreño, María Teresa García-Silva, Óscar García-Campos, Ana Martínez-de Aragón, Bru Cormand and Alfons Macaya

Prolonged Sporadic Hemiplegic Migraine Associated With a Novel De Novo Missense ATP1A2 Gene Mutation
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 51, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages: 447–450, Sara De Sanctis, Gaetano Salvatore Grieco, Luciana Breda, Carlo Casali, Manuela Nozzi, Marianna Del Torto, Francesco Chiarelli and Alberto Verrotti

No Influence of 5-HTTLPR Gene Polymorphism on Migraine Symptomatology, Comorbid Depression, and Chronification
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages: 420–430, Thomas Wieser, Kathrin Dresler, Stefan Evers, Charly Gaul, Dorothea König, Daniela Hölzl, Klaus Berger, Dale Nyholt and Thomas Deufel

The Phe-124-Cys and A-161T Variants of the Human 5-HT1B Receptor Gene Are Not Major Determinants of the Clinical Response to Sumatriptan
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 47, Issue 5, May 2007, Pages: 711–716, Suneet Mehrotra, Kaate R. J. Vanmolkot, Rune R. Frants, Arn M. J. M. Van Den Maagdenberg, Michel D. Ferrari and Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink

Influence of MTHFR Genotype on Contingent Negative Variation And MRI Abnormalities in Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 47, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages: 253–265, Marina De Tommaso, Olimpia Difruscolo, Michele Sardaro, Luciana Losito, Claudia Serpino, Anna Pietrapertosa, Maria Teresa Santeramo, Franca Dicuonzo, Aristide Carella, Paolo Lamberti and Paolo Livrea

Serotonin Transporter Protein Polymorphism and Harm Avoidance Personality in Migraine without Aura
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 46, Issue 6, June 2006, Pages: 991–996, Jeong Wook Park, Si Ryung Han, Dong Won Yang, Yeong In Kim and Kwang Soo Lee

5-HT1B Receptor Polymorphism and Clinical Response to Sumatriptan
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 38, Issue 4, April 1998, Pages: 288–291, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink, Monique N. Vergouwe, Roel A. Ophoff, Pramod R. Saxena, Michel D. Ferrari and Rune R. Frants

Heredibility and twin studies

A Twin Study of Depression and Migraine: Evidence for a Shared Genetic Vulnerability
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 49, Issue 10, November/December 2009, Pages: 1493–1502, Ellen A. Schur, Carolyn Noonan, Dedra Buchwald, Jack Goldberg and Niloofar Afari

The Shared Genetics of Migraine and Anxious Depression
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 10, November/December 2010, Pages: 1549–1560, Lannie Ligthart, Dale R. Nyholt, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx and Dorret I. Boomsma

Frequency of Headaches in Children is Influenced by Headache Status in the Mother
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 6, June 2010, Pages: 973–980, Marco A. Arruda, Vincenzo Guidetti, Federica Galli, Regina C.A.P. Albuquerque and Marcelo E. Bigal

Familial Clustering of Migraine: Further Evidence From a Portuguese Study
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 49, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages: 404–411, Carolina Lemos, Maria-José Castro, José Barros, Jorge Sequeiros, José Pereira-Monteiro, Denisa Mendonça and Alda Sousa

Familial Occurrence of Migraine With Aura in a Population-Based Study
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 43, Issue 3, March 2003, Pages: 231–234, D. Cologno, A. De Pascale and G.C. Manzoni

Shared Rearing Environment in Migraine: Results From Twins Reared Apart and Twins Reared Together
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 43, Issue 3, March 2003, Pages: 235–244, Dan A. Svensson, Bo Larsson, Elisabet Waldenlind and Nancy L. Pedersen

Lifetime Prevalence and Characteristics of Recurrent Primary Headaches in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Twins
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 42, Issue 8, September 2002, Pages: 754–765, Dan A. Svensson, Karl Ekbom, Bo Larsson and Elisabet Waldenlind

Migraine Without Aura and Migraine With Aura Are Distinct Disorders. A Population-Based Twin Survey
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 42, Issue 5, May 2002, Pages: 332–336, Michael Bjørn Russell, Vibeke Ulrich, Morten Gervil and Jes Olesen

Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated With Migraine in Schoolchildren
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 40, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages: 152–157, A. Bener, S.A. Uduman, E.M.A. Qassimi, G. Khalaily, L. Sztriha, H. Kilpelainen and E. Obineche

The Prevalence and Characteristics of Migraine in Twins From the General Population
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 39, Issue 3, March 1999, Pages: 173–180, Vibeke Ulrich, Morten Gervil, Kirsten Fenger, Jes Olesen and Michael B. Russell

Migraine in Twins Raised Together and Apart
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 38, Issue 6, June 1998, Pages: 417–422, Dewey K. Ziegler, Yoon-Mi Hur, Thomas J. Bouchard Jr, Ruth S. Hassanein and Ruth Barter

Migraine With Aura: Segregation Analysis and Heritability Estimation
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 36, Issue 5, May 1996, Pages: 320–322, Nikolaos Kalfakis, Marios Panas, Demetrios Vassilopoulos and Sasa Malliara-Loulakaki

Genetic Influence in Headaches: A Swedish Twin Study
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 35, Issue 9, October 1995, Pages: 513–519, Dr. Bo Larsson, Dr. Bo Bille and Dr. Nancy L. Pedersen

Migraine and Concomitant Symptoms Among 8167 Adult Twin Pairs
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 35, Issue 2, February 1995, Pages: 70–78, M-L. Honkasalo, J. Kaprio, T. Winter, K. Heikkilä, M. Sillanpää and M. Koskenvuo

HEADACHE IN A NON-CLINIC TWIN POPULATION
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 14, Issue 4, January 1975, Pages: 213–218, Dewey K. Ziegler, Ruth Stephenson Hassanein, David Harris and Roberta Stewart

Pedigree studies

Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis of a Large Family With Migraine-Associated Vertigo
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 48, Issue 10, November/December 2008, Pages: 1460–1467, Hane Lee, Joanna C. Jen, Yoon-Hee Cha, Stanley F. Nelson and Robert W. Baloh

A Novel ATP1A2 Gene Mutation in an Irish Familial Hemiplegic Migraine Kindred
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 48, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages: 101–108, Desiree M. Fernandez, Collette K. Hand, Brian J. Sweeney and Nollaig A. Parfrey

Candidate gene case-control studies

PRDM16 rs2651899 Variant Is a Risk Factor for Chinese Common Migraine Patients
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 53, Issue 10, November/December 2013, Pages: 1595–1601, Xing-Kai An, Qi-Lin Ma, Qing Lin, Xiao-Rong Zhang, Cong-Xia Lu and Hong-Li Qu

Association of a GRIA3 Gene Polymorphism With Migraine in an Australian Case-Control Cohort
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 53, Issue 8, September 2013, Pages: 1245–1249, Bridget H. Maher, Rod A. Lea, Jordan Follett, Hannah C. Cox, Francesca Fernandez, Teresa Esposito, Fernando Gianfrancesco, Larisa M. Haupt and Lyn R. Griffiths

Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Gene (I/D) Polymorphism in Patients With Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 53, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages: 161–164, Bahriye Horasanl─▒, F. Belgin Ataç, ─░lker Çöven, Basak Karakurum Goksel and Sibel Benli

Identification of Novel Genes Involved in Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 52, Issue s2, October 2012, Pages: 107–110, Ronald G. Lafrenière and Guy A. Rouleau

The Role of the MTHFR Gene in Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 52, Issue 3, March 2012, Pages: 515–520, Shani Stuart, Hannah C. Cox, Rod A. Lea and Lyn R. Griffiths

No Association Between Bipolar Disorder Risk Polymorphisms in ANK3 and CACNA1C and Common Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 51, Issue 5, May 2011, Pages: 796–803, Çiçek Wöber-Bingöl, Maria Tropeano, Andreas Karwautz, Gudrun Wagner, Sara Campos-de-Sousa, Heidi E. Zesch, Christian Kienbacher, Sofia Natriashvili, Incifer Kanbur, Munni Ray, Christian Wöber and David A. Collier

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Serotonin Transporter Gene in Migraine – An Association Study
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages: 319–322, Bettina Bayerer, Jörg Engelbergs, Irini Savidou, Tanja Boes, Michael Küper, Christoph F. Schorn, Andreas Wissmann, Dietmar Knop, Hans C. Diener and Volker Limmroth

Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 Genotype and Risk for Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages: 85–91, Elena García-Martín, Carmen Martínez, Mercedes Serrador, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Francisco Navacerrada, José A. G. Agúndez and Félix J. Jiménez-Jiménez

The Relationship Between Homocysteine and Genes of Folate-Related Enzymes in Migraine Patients
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages: 99–168, Agustin Oterino, Maria Toriello, Natalia Valle, Jesus Castillo, Ana Alonso-Arranz, Yolanda Bravo, Carlos Ruiz-Alegria, Estrella Quintela and Julio Pascual

Increased Dopamine Is Associated With the cGMP and Homocysteine Pathway in Female Migraineurs
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages: 109–116, Hans-Jürgen Gruber, Claudia Bernecker, Sabine Pailer, Anita Lechner, Renate Horejsi, Reinhard Möller, Franz Fazekas and Martie Truschnig-Wilders

Association Between Polymorphisms in the β2-adrenoceptor Gene and Migraine in Women
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 49, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages: 235–244, Markus Schürks, Tobias Kurth, Paul M Ridker, Julie E. Buring and Robert Y.L. Zee

Multilocus Analyses Reveal Involvement of the ESR1, ESR2, and FSHR Genes in Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 48, Issue 10, November/December 2008, Pages: 1438–1450, Agustin Oterino, Maria Toriello, Amalia Cayón, Jesus Castillo, Rafael Colas, Ana Alonson-Arranz, Carlos Ruiz-Alegria, Estrella Quintela, Fernando Monton, Nuria Ruiz-Lavilla, Felix Gonzalez and Julio Pascual

Histamine-N-Methyl Transferase Polymorphism and Risk for Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 48, Issue 9, October 2008, Pages: 1343–1348, Elena García-Martín, Carmen Martínez, Mercedes Serrador, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Francisco Navacerrada, José A.G. Agúndez and Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez

Lack of Association of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Polymorphisms and Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 48, Issue 7, July/August 2008, Pages: 1115–1119, María Toriello, Agustín Oterino, Julio Pascual, Jesús Castillo, Rafael Colás, Ana Alonso-Arranz, Carlos Ruiz-Alegría, Estrella Quintela, Fernando Montón and Nuria Ruiz-Lavilla

Association Between Migraine and the G1246A Polymorphism in the Hypocretin Receptor 2 Gene
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 47, Issue 8, September 2007, Pages: 1195–1199, Markus Schürks, Volker Limmroth, Ingrid Geissler, Grietje Tessmann, Irini Savidou, Jörg Engelbergs, Tobias Kurth, Hans-Christoph Diener and Dieter Rosskopf

Association Between a Polymorphism in the Lymphotoxin−a Promoter Region and Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 47, Issue 7, July/August 2007, Pages: 1056–1062, Kyung-A Lee, Soo Yeon Jang, Kwang-Min Sohn, Hong Hee Won, Min Ji Kim, Jong-Won Kim and Chin-Sang Chung

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (Glu298Asp) Polymorphism is an Independent Risk Factor for Migraine with Aura
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 46, Issue 10, November/December 2006, Pages: 1575–1579, Barbara Borroni, Renata Rao, Paolo Liberini, Elisabetta Venturelli, Michela Cossandi, Silvana Archetti, Luigi Caimi and Alessandro Padovani

Migrainous Vertigo: Mutation Analysis of the Candidate Genes CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A, and CACNB4
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 46, Issue 7, July/August 2006, Pages: 1136–1141, Michael Von Brevern, Nga Ta, Anupama Shankar, Anna Wiste, Anne Siegel, Andrea Radtke, Thomas Sander and Andrew Escayg

Endothelin Receptor A –231 G>A Polymorphism: No Linkage to Primary Pediatric Headache
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 46, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages: 486–491, Veronica Lisi, Greta Garbo, PierAntonio Battistella, Flavia Miccichè, Anna Stecca, Salvatore Terrazzino, Malida Franzoi, Elisa Tripoli, Alberta Leon and Maurizio Clementi

Contribution of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms to Pediatric Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 46, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages: 478–485, Agnes Szilagyi, Krisztina Boor, Iren Orosz, Eszter Szantai, Anna Szekely, Huba Kalasz, Maria Sasvari-Szekely and Viktor Farkas

Investigating the Association Between Notch3 Polymorphism and Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 46, Issue 2, February 2006, Pages: 317–321, Barbara Borroni, Cristina Brambilla, Paolo Liberini, Renata Rao, Silvana Archetti, Elisabetta Venturelli, Stefano Gipponi, Luigi Caimi and Alessandro Padovani

Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism and Migraine in the Korean Population
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 45, Issue 8, September 2005, Pages: 1056–1060, Woo-Kyung Kim, Hyun-Sook Kim, Won-Joo Kim, Kyung-Yul Lee, Hyojin Park, Chan-Hyung Kim, Se Joo Kim and Young-Chul Choi

A Highly Polymorphic Poly-Glutamine Stretch in the Potassium Channel KCNN3 in Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 45, Issue 2, February 2005, Pages: 132–136, Rainald Mössner, Annette Weichselbaum, Martin Marziniak, Christine M Freitag, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Claudia Sommer and Jobst Meyer

Tumor Necrosis Factor Gene Polymorphism in Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 42, Issue 5, May 2002, Pages: 341–345, Simonetta Trabace, Gloria Brioli, Patrizia Lulli, Marina Morellini, Mario Giacovazzo, Germana Cicciarelli and Paolo Martelletti

Dopamine Receptor Genes and Migraine With and Without Aura: An Association Study
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 42, Issue 5, May 2002, Pages: 346–351, A. Graeme Shepherd, Rod A. Lea, Colin Hutchins, Kathryn L. Jordan, Peter J. Brimage and Lyn R. Griffiths

Assessing the Relative Incidence of Mitochondrial DNA A3243G in Migraine Without Aura With Maternal Inheritance
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 40, Issue 7, July 2000, Pages: 568–571, G. Di Gennaro, M.G. Buzzi, O. Ciccarelli, F.M. Santorelli, F. Pierelli, D. Fortini, M. D'onofrio, A. Costa, G. Nappi and C. Casali

Frequency of Factor V Leiden in Juvenile Migraine With Aura
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 38, Issue 10, November 1998, Pages: 779–781, Stefano Soriani, Caterina Borgna-Pignatti, Elisabetta Trabetti, Alessandro Casartelli, Pasquale Montagna and Pier Franco Pignatti

Involvement of a Ca 2+ Channel Gene in Familial Hemiplegic Migraine and Migraine With and Without Aura
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 37, Issue 8, September, 1997, Pages: 479–485, Roel A. Ophoff, Gisela M. Terwindt, Monique N. Vergouwe, Rune R. Frants and Dr. Michel D. Ferrari, Dutch Migraine Genetics Research Group

Exclusion of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C Receptor Genes as Candidate Genes for Migraine
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 36, Issue 4, April 1996, Pages: 254–258, Dr. Anne Buchwalder, Dr. Susan K. Welch and Dr. Stephen J. Peroutka

Elevated Frequency of HLA Shared-Haplotypes in Migraine Families
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 27, Issue 10, November 1987, Pages: 575–577, M. Giacovazzo, M. Valeri, A. Piazza, N. Torlone, R.M. Bernoni, P. Martelletti and D. Adorno

Genomic and chromosomal studies

Family-Based Association Study of Chromosome 6p12.2-p21.1 Migraine Locus
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 52, Issue 3, March 2012, Pages: 393–399, Agustín Oterino, Maria Toriello, Jesus Castillo, Vicente González-Quitanilla, Pablo Sánchez-Velasco, Ana Alonso, Nuria Ruiz-Lavilla and Julio Pascual

Shorter Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Cells Associated With Migraine in Women
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 6, June 2010, Pages: 965–972, Hua Ren, Veronica Collins, Francesca Fernandez, Sharon Quinlan, Lyn Griffiths and K. H. Andy Choo

Genomic Abnormalities in Patients With Migraine and Chronic Migraine: Preliminary Blood Gene Expression Suggests Platelet Abnormalities
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 44, Issue 10, November 2004, Pages: 994–1004, Andrew D. Hershey, Yang Tang, Scott W. Powers, Marielle A. Kabbouche, Donald L. Gilbert, Tracy A. Glauser and Frank R. Sharp

Linkage studies

A Novel Locus for Familial Migraine on Xp22
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 50, Issue 6, June 2010, Pages: 955–962, Thomas Wieser, Julio Pascual, Agusto Oterino, Michael Soso, Michael Barmada and Kathy L. Gardner

Genome-wide association studies

Genome-Wide-Associated Variants in Migraine Susceptibility: A Replication Study From North India
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 53, Issue 10, November/December 2013, Pages: 1583–1594, Jayashri Ghosh, Sunil Pradhan and Balraj Mittal

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